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Articles on the Irish Question

First Published: in French in the newspaper La Marseillaise March 1, 9, 19, 21 and 29, and April 12, 17 and 24, 1870;

These articles were written by Marx’s daughter Jenny for the French Republican newspaper Marseillaise and dealt with the questions raised in Marx’s article “The English Government and the Fenian Prisoners.” The third article was written together with Marx. All except the second article were signed J. Williams.

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 Mary MacSwiney (1872 - 1942)

Mary MacSwiney was born in Surrey, England on March 27, 1872. She was the oldest of eight children born to John and Mary MacSwiney (nee. Wilkinson).  Both of her parents were teachers. Her mother, who was English by birth, was outspoken in her support of Irish freedom.. The family relocated to Cork when Mary was six years old. 

Mary received her primary education at a local national school. After completing her primary education she attended St Angela’s Ursuline High School in Cork.

On completing her studies at St Angela’s she returned to London where she worked as a private tutor. At age twenty she was admitted to Hughes Hall, the Cambridge Teaching College for Women from whence she received a teaching diploma. After receiving her diploma she taught at the  Hillside Convent in Farnborough, London before returning to Cork in 1904 on the death of her mother.  As oldest child she assumed responsibility for the care of her younger siblings.

On her return to Cork she obtained a teaching position at St Angela’s Ursuline High School, the school she attended as a student.

Once settled in she joined Inghinidhe na hÉireann (Daughters of Ireland) an Irish Nationalist organization for women founded in 1900 by Maud Goone. The aim of the organization was to bring Irishwomen together to breakdown the prevailing Victorian attitudes that prevented them from participation in social and political activities thus denying them the right to have their voices heard. --- continue

The Passing of the Gael

Ethna Carbery


They are going, going, going from the valleys and the hills

They are leaving far behind them heathery moor and mountain rills,

All the wealth of hawthorn hedges where the brown thrush sways and trills

They are going, shy-eyed colleens, and lads so straight and tall,


From the purple peaks of Kerry, from the crags of wild Imaal,

From the greening plains of Mayo, and the glens of Donegal.

They are leaving pleasant places, shores with snowy sands outspread

Blue and lonely lakes a-stirring when the wind stirs overhead:



They think that they have pacified Ireland. They think that they have purchased half of us and intimidated the other half. They think that they have foreseen everything, think that they have provided against everything; but the fools, the fools, the fools! - they have left us our Fenian dead, and while Ireland holds these graves, Ireland unfree shall never be at peace.

Padraic Pearse oration given at 

Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa's funeral on Aug. 1, 1915

History of  the 1848 Rising In Ireland

Preface to Michael Doheny --The Felon's Track

The Irish Confederation still awaits its historian. Three of its leaders have left narratives of its brief and momentous career, but, of the three, Doheny alone participated in the Insurrection that dug the political grave of Young Ireland. In “The Felon’s Track,” written hot on his escape from the stricken land, he tells the story vividly and passionately. It has morals deducible for all manner of Irishmen, and one for those English statesmen who comfort themselves with the illusion that Irish Nationalism, like Jacobitism, is a platonic sentiment. The man who, roused from his bed at midnight by tapping fingers on his window and a voice whispering that insurrection was afoot, rose and rode away in the darkness to join himself to its desperate fortunes was no young man ardent for adventure. Michael Doheny, when he left his home and his career to engage in the fatal enterprise, was a sober middle-aged barrister, a man of weight and fortune into which he had built himself by the hard toil of twenty years. His social anchorages were deep-cast—and no mere sentiment provokes such a man to throw aside the hard-won harvest of his life and risk the rebel’s or the felon’s fate. --- continue

 Ballyseedy Mouument, Ballyseedy, Co. Kerry, Ireland

At midnight on March 6th 1923, nine prisoners were brought to Ballyseedy Wood near Ballyseedy cross by soldiers of the Free State army. They were Pat Buckley, John Daly, Pat Hartnett, Michael O'Connell, John O'Connor, George O'Shea, Tim Tuomey, James Walsh and Steven Fuller.  When they got there, they were tied around a log and a land  mine was detonated. Most of them survived the initial blast however, the soldiers used machine guns and grenades to finish them off.  All of them died except for Steven Fuller who was blown away by the force of the blast.  He landed in the  nearby river Lee where he crawled for about 500 yards to Currans House. They took him in and hid him in a dugout at the back of their farm for some weeks. He was the only one who survived the massacre

For additional details and for a photo of the man responsible click on the link below.


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