Voyage of the Erin's Hope --- April to August 1867
After the failed Young Ireland Uprising of 1848, many of its leaders were captured, sentenced and transported to penal colonies in Australia. Those who evaded capture ended up in France on in the United States. Two of the leaders, James Stephens and John O’Mahony, who had escaped to France, spent the ensuing five years discussing and planning for another uprising in Ireland.
In 1853, O’Mahony, an Irish language scholar and linguist, left Paris for New York where he met other fellow Young Irelanders including John Mitchel, who had escaped from a penal colony in Tasmania. After taking up residence there he completed and published several literary works and joined several Irish organizations, including the Emmet Monument Association. On 28 February 1858, he, together with Michael Doheny, James Roche, Thomas J. Kelly, Oliver Byrne, Patrick O’Rourke, and Captain Michael Corcoran founded the Fenian Brotherhood.
In the meantime, Stephen’s bided his time in Paris until it was safe for him to return to Ireland. After eight years in exile, he believed the time had come when he could return safely. He arrived back in Dublin in February of 1856.
Having lost contact with his 1848 compatriots during his prolonged exile, Stephens reasoned that his first move should be a trip around Ireland to reacquaint with old comrades and start the process of organizing for the next uprising. After completing that odyssey, he, together with Peter Langan, Thomas Clarke Luby, Charles Kickham, Joseph Denieffe and Garrett O'Shaughnessy founded the Irish Republican Brotherhood on St. Patrick’s Day in 1858.
The aim of the organization was “the establishment of an independent Irish Republic by force of arms”.
Theobald Wolfe Tone's Speech from the Dock
November 10, 1798
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Court-Martial, I mean not to give you the trouble of bringing judicial proof to convict me legally of having acted in hostility to the government of his Britannic Majesty in Ireland. I admit the fact. From my earliest youth I have regarded the connection between Great Britain and Ireland as the curse of the Irish nation, and felt convinced that, whilst it lasted, this country could never he free nor happy. My mind has been confirmed in this opinion by the experience of every succeeding year, and the conclusions which I have drawn from every fact before my eyes. In consequence, I was determined to employ all the powers which my individual efforts could move, in order to separate the two countries. That Ireland was not able of herself to throw off the yoke, I knew; I therefore sought for aid wherever it was to be found. In honorable poverty I rejected offers which, to a man in my circumstances, might be considered highly advantageous. I remained faithful to what I thought the cause of my country, and sought in the French Republic an ally to rescue three millions of my countrymen from… continue
The Irish Diaspora in America and the Easter Rising
“wherever green is worn”
The Easter Rising of 1916 did not did not take place in a vacuum. The Irish Diaspora in America, and elsewhere throughout the world, took part at some level in its planning, financing or implementation.
The Kimmage garrison, comprised of approximately 90 Irish emigres from England and Scotland, took a direct role in the Rising. Argentina-born Eamonn Bulfin raised the flag of the Irish Republic on the Prince Street corner of the GPO and the other flag, the tricolor, was raised by one of the Liverpool Volunteers from the Kimmage Garrison. Not to be forgotten were the two seamen, a Swede and a Finn, who showed up outside the GPO at the onset of the Rising on Monday asking for permission to join the fight.
Apart from those brave Volunteers who bore arms and shed blood for the Irish Republic, many more individuals, in faraway places, and especially here in America, dug deep into their pockets and purses for the same cause; an Irish Republic. ---- continue