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Articles on the Irish Question

First Published: in French in the newspaper La Marseillaise March 1, 9, 19, 21 and 29, and April 12, 17 and 24, 1870;

These articles were written by Marx’s daughter Jenny for the French Republican newspaper Marseillaise and dealt with the questions raised in Marx’s article “The English Government and the Fenian Prisoners.” The third article was written together with Marx. All except the second article were signed J. Williams.

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Teresa Cora Boylan Brayton (1868 – 1943)

Teresa Cora Boylan  was born in Kilbrook,  Kilcock  Co. Kildare on June 29, 1868 to Hugh Boylan and his wife Elizabeth Boylan (nee Downes). The Boylan's were committed Irish  Republicans with a family history dating back to the 1798 Uprising.

Teresa great grand father was a member of a United Irishmen's contingent of pikemen who successfully attacked the British garrison in Prosperous Co. Kildare on May 24, at the onset of the 1798 Uprising.

As a teenager she lived through the turbulent years of agrarian agitation, a period of civil unrest between 1879 and 1882  commonly referred to as the 'Land War' years.  The organization leading the agitation was the Irish National Land League founded in 1879 by Michael Davitt, Charles Stewart Parnell, Andrew Kettle  and Thomas Brennan.  The aim of the organization was to abolish landlordism in Ireland and help the tenant farmers, who toiled the land, to own the land.

As a result of her own observations and her family's long history of vocal and physical resistance to British rule in Ireland, Teresa was, from an early age, well versed in Ireland's centuries long quest for freedom, a quest she embraced and pursued throughout her life. -- continue


The Old Bog Road

Teresa Brayton (1868 -1943)

My feet are here on Broadway
This blessed harvest morn,
But oh! the ache that's in my heart
For the spot where I was born.
My weary hands are blistered
Through work in cold and heat!
And oh! to swing a scythe once more
Through a field of Irish wheat.
Had I the chance to wander back,
Or own a king's abode.
I'd sooner see the hawthorn tree
By the Old Bog Road.

God save Ireland

Timothy Daniel Sullivan (1827 - 1914)

High upon the gallows tree, swung the noble-hearted three,
By the vengeful tyrant, stricken in their bloom.
But they met him face to face with the courage of their race,
And they went with souls undaunted to their doom.

"God save Ireland," said the heroes.
"God save Ireland," said them all.
"Whether on the scaffold high, or the battlefield we die,
No matter when, for Ireland dear we fall!"




They think that they have pacified Ireland. They think that they have purchased half of us and intimidated the other half. They think that they have foreseen everything, think that they have provided against everything; but the fools, the fools, the fools! - they have left us our Fenian dead, and while Ireland holds these graves, Ireland unfree shall never be at peace.

Padraic Pearse oration given at 

Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa's funeral on Aug. 1, 1915

History of  the 1848 Rising In Ireland

Preface to Michael Doheny --The Felon's Track

The Irish Confederation still awaits its historian. Three of its leaders have left narratives of its brief and momentous career, but, of the three, Doheny alone participated in the Insurrection that dug the political grave of Young Ireland. In “The Felon’s Track,” written hot on his escape from the stricken land, he tells the story vividly and passionately. It has morals deducible for all manner of Irishmen, and one for those English statesmen who comfort themselves with the illusion that Irish Nationalism, like Jacobitism, is a platonic sentiment. The man who, roused from his bed at midnight by tapping fingers on his window and a voice whispering that insurrection was afoot, rose and rode away in the darkness to join himself to its desperate fortunes was no young man ardent for adventure. Michael Doheny, when he left his home and his career to engage in the fatal enterprise, was a sober middle-aged barrister, a man of weight and fortune into which he had built himself by the hard toil of twenty years. His social anchorages were deep-cast—and no mere sentiment provokes such a man to throw aside the hard-won harvest of his life and risk the rebel’s or the felon’s fate. --- continue

 Woking Prison, Surrey, England

The Woking Invalid Convict Prison - the first of its kind in the country - was begun in 1858 on almost 65 acres of land between Knaphill and St Johns. In 1867 work started on a second prison on the site - for female prisoners. It was while this was being built that the male prison housed two Irish Fenians - Brian Dillon and John Lynch - Lynch actually dying here in 1869.

John Lynch was a widower and publican who lodged in Cork City and became involved with the Cork City Fenians. He was convicted on the word of an informer, John Warner, who stated that Lynch was a colonel in the Fenian organization in Cork. Lynch was convicted of treason and felony by Judge Keogh in December 1865. Overall the evidence used to convict Lynch was rather weak for the sentence of 10 years penal servitude.

Lynch was sent first to Pentonville Prison. Later in December 1865, due to a chest infection, he was moved to the hospital in Woking Prison. Other inmates at Woking included Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, Captain Richard O'Sullivan Burke (retired from the US army), Captain Timothy Deasy (of the 9th Massachusetts Infantry Volunteers), Brian Dillon (a law clerk from Cork), and Charles Kickham (author of the popular novel Knocknagow).   

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