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Articles on the Irish Question

First Published: in French in the newspaper La Marseillaise March 1, 9, 19, 21 and 29, and April 12, 17 and 24, 1870;

These articles were written by Marx’s daughter Jenny for the French Republican newspaper Marseillaise and dealt with the questions raised in Marx’s article “The English Government and the Fenian Prisoners.” The third article was written together with Marx. All except the second article were signed J. Williams.

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Diarmuid Lynch  (1878 - 1950)

Jeremiah Christopher (Diarmuid) Lynch was born on January 10, 1878  in Granig, Tracton, Co Cork to Timothy and Hannah Lynch (nee Dunlea). When Lynch was six months old his mother died from bronchopneumonia. His father, still a young man, married Margaret Murphy from nearby Ovens with whom he had five other children.

The nationalist minded Lynch's were prosperous tenant farmers who, for many decades, leased substantial acreage of fertile land in the townland of Granig from the absentee landlords of the Tracton Abbey estate.

 Lynch received his primary education at the nearby  Knocknamanagh National School. Later in life he paid tribute to the school's headmaster, Michael McCarthy for the excellent education he received and for instilling in him an awareness and appreciation of his cultural heritage and Ireland's centuries long struggle for  freedom.

 When Lynch was thirteen years old his father died leaving his stepmother to care for him and his stepbrothers and stepsister. As the oldest child he felt duty bound to forego his schooling so that he could help his stepmother care of the younger children and also help with farming chores.


My feet are here on Broadway
This blessed harvest morn,
But oh! the ache that's in my heart
For the spot where I was born.
My weary hands are blistered
Through work in cold and heat!
And oh! to swing a scythe once more
Through a field of Irish wheat.
Had I the chance to wander back,
Or own a king's abode.
I'd sooner see the hawthorn tree
By the Old Bog Road.

God save Ireland

Timothy Daniel Sullivan (1827 - 1914)

High upon the gallows tree, swung the noble-hearted three,
By the vengeful tyrant, stricken in their bloom.
But they met him face to face with the courage of their race,
And they went with souls undaunted to their doom.

"God save Ireland," said the heroes.
"God save Ireland," said them all.
"Whether on the scaffold high, or the battlefield we die,
No matter when, for Ireland dear we fall!"




They think that they have pacified Ireland. They think that they have purchased half of us and intimidated the other half. They think that they have foreseen everything, think that they have provided against everything; but the fools, the fools, the fools! - they have left us our Fenian dead, and while Ireland holds these graves, Ireland unfree shall never be at peace.

Padraic Pearse oration given at 

Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa's funeral on Aug. 1, 1915

History of  the 1848 Rising In Ireland

Preface to Michael Doheny --The Felon's Track

The Irish Confederation still awaits its historian. Three of its leaders have left narratives of its brief and momentous career, but, of the three, Doheny alone participated in the Insurrection that dug the political grave of Young Ireland. In “The Felon’s Track,” written hot on his escape from the stricken land, he tells the story vividly and passionately. It has morals deducible for all manner of Irishmen, and one for those English statesmen who comfort themselves with the illusion that Irish Nationalism, like Jacobitism, is a platonic sentiment. The man who, roused from his bed at midnight by tapping fingers on his window and a voice whispering that insurrection was afoot, rose and rode away in the darkness to join himself to its desperate fortunes was no young man ardent for adventure. Michael Doheny, when he left his home and his career to engage in the fatal enterprise, was a sober middle-aged barrister, a man of weight and fortune into which he had built himself by the hard toil of twenty years. His social anchorages were deep-cast—and no mere sentiment provokes such a man to throw aside the hard-won harvest of his life and risk the rebel’s or the felon’s fate. --- continue

 Lewes Prison, East Sussex, England

Lewes Prison was built in 1853. Amongst the first prisoners housed there were three hundred Finnish Grenadiers captured while defending Bomarsund Fortress on the Åland Islands during the Crimean War.

Another early prisoner was George Witton, a Lieutenant in the Bushveldt Carbineers in the Boer War in South Africa. He was imprisoned for murder after the shooting of Boer prisoners.

Witton and two other soldiers Morant, and Handcock were scapegoats, made to take the blame for widespread British war crimes against the Boers. The trial and executions of Morant and Handcock were carried out for political reasons, to cover up a controversial and secret "no prisoners" policy promulgated by Lord Kitchener, and to appease the Boer government over the killing of Boer prisoners.  Witton, an Australian escaped execution.

In the aftermath of the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin as many as 120 IRA prisoners were held there. Some of the better known amongst these prisoners were Thomas Ashe, Diarmuid Lynch, Frank Lawless, Harry Boland, Eamon de Valera and Pıaras Béaslaí .

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The Fall term of the Irish Studies Institute at Molloy College will begin on Saturday, September 27.  The Institute offers classes in Irish Language & Gaelic Culture at all levels for school age children and adults.  Discounts apply including the Institute’s two-for-one program and 25% off for children.  For detail, follow the link at http://www.irishtribes.com/molloy.html .  To register on-line, click on your choice of class.  Or contact Catherine Tully Muscente at (516) 323-4710 and cmuscente@molloy.edu .


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